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Thursday 07-Apr-2016
騎士道

所謂騎士,字面解就是騎著馬的戰士。字底,則是背負著榮譽和高尚的品格,也是一種身份認同。而騎士道精神,亦深深影響著英國人,並在今時今日對社會和個人行為都發揮著意想不到的作用-為「紳士」的概念定下了基礎。



那騎士一定是起源自英國,對吧?非也。騎士最早起源自八世紀的法蘭西王國(即今天的法國),本來的確是兵種之一,是受過正規軍訓練的騎兵,逐漸發展成一種社會階級。經過兩三世紀的洗練,日趨完整的騎士制度「游水」由法國來到英國,並結合英國本土的一些軍事制度,成為英國獨特的騎士文化。



那麼,傳到英國後又轉變成甚麼樣呢?騎士階級隨著威廉一世建立的封建制度已生,並成為了英國的一個社會階級。在確立了社會地位的基礎後,騎士的元素慢慢發展出來:勇敢、高貴、溫文爾雅、誠實、溫柔、榮耀,這些都是當時英國對騎士的形容,同樣地也成為今天紳士的基礎。



由於騎士的身分是軍人,善戰是他們的首要條件,而效忠領主和勇敢殺敵則將他們塑造成英雄。眼前的是敵人,背後的是自己的家,騎士除了要勇敢豪氣外,亦要有溫柔體貼的一面,要保護弱者免得他們被邪惡的人傷害。所以在人格上,騎士要剛柔並兼,缺一不可。甚至有一說是,騎士之間要靠互相打鬥去訓練武技,並要在對打過後保持整齊衣裝才算是合格的騎士。



雖然,騎士制度在1159年隨著亨利二世的軍事改革而走向夕陽,那種騎士精神卻深深影響著英國人,甚至成為英國民族主義的重要部分。例如,英國人非常注重禮儀,對自己、對別人和對場合有著道德上的自我約束,不會做一些使人感到不舒服的事。另外,照顧女士和小孩子都是風度的表現,可謂英國男士必定會有的特質。雖然現代戰爭減少,但競爭的心仍存在於英國人心中。團隊合作的運動競技就是最佳例子。



而有一樣完全不同的,就是當初只有社會上一部份人能當上的騎士階級,現在變成了所有英國人都會默默堅守著的精神,不分富貴貧賤,並發展成今時今日英國街頭到處可見的「紳士」。唯獨騎士也好紳士也好,也是從幼學起,其精神的精華滲進教育,將此優秀的英國文化如春雨一般灑落種子上,在英國獨特的文化土壤中滋潤著幼苗成長。



圖片:http://g.pconline.com.cn/bbs/topic-14617971.html 

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