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Thursday 07-Apr-2016
騎士道

所謂騎士,字面解就是騎著馬的戰士。字底,則是背負著榮譽和高尚的品格,也是一種身份認同。而騎士道精神,亦深深影響著英國人,並在今時今日對社會和個人行為都發揮著意想不到的作用-為「紳士」的概念定下了基礎。



那騎士一定是起源自英國,對吧?非也。騎士最早起源自八世紀的法蘭西王國(即今天的法國),本來的確是兵種之一,是受過正規軍訓練的騎兵,逐漸發展成一種社會階級。經過兩三世紀的洗練,日趨完整的騎士制度「游水」由法國來到英國,並結合英國本土的一些軍事制度,成為英國獨特的騎士文化。



那麼,傳到英國後又轉變成甚麼樣呢?騎士階級隨著威廉一世建立的封建制度已生,並成為了英國的一個社會階級。在確立了社會地位的基礎後,騎士的元素慢慢發展出來:勇敢、高貴、溫文爾雅、誠實、溫柔、榮耀,這些都是當時英國對騎士的形容,同樣地也成為今天紳士的基礎。



由於騎士的身分是軍人,善戰是他們的首要條件,而效忠領主和勇敢殺敵則將他們塑造成英雄。眼前的是敵人,背後的是自己的家,騎士除了要勇敢豪氣外,亦要有溫柔體貼的一面,要保護弱者免得他們被邪惡的人傷害。所以在人格上,騎士要剛柔並兼,缺一不可。甚至有一說是,騎士之間要靠互相打鬥去訓練武技,並要在對打過後保持整齊衣裝才算是合格的騎士。



雖然,騎士制度在1159年隨著亨利二世的軍事改革而走向夕陽,那種騎士精神卻深深影響著英國人,甚至成為英國民族主義的重要部分。例如,英國人非常注重禮儀,對自己、對別人和對場合有著道德上的自我約束,不會做一些使人感到不舒服的事。另外,照顧女士和小孩子都是風度的表現,可謂英國男士必定會有的特質。雖然現代戰爭減少,但競爭的心仍存在於英國人心中。團隊合作的運動競技就是最佳例子。



而有一樣完全不同的,就是當初只有社會上一部份人能當上的騎士階級,現在變成了所有英國人都會默默堅守著的精神,不分富貴貧賤,並發展成今時今日英國街頭到處可見的「紳士」。唯獨騎士也好紳士也好,也是從幼學起,其精神的精華滲進教育,將此優秀的英國文化如春雨一般灑落種子上,在英國獨特的文化土壤中滋潤著幼苗成長。



圖片:http://g.pconline.com.cn/bbs/topic-14617971.html 

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Samuel Chan, the winner of Alumni Awards 2017, is the founder of Britannia. He had studied in the UK since the age of 9 for 15 years and achieved his master degree in International Political Economy at University of Warwick. Now he shares his experiences and professional advice in education columns in Hong Kong’s major newspapers.

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